Both C and Java are programming languages but they share numerous similarities and differences. Each language is used for different purposes according to its nature and application. Java is the most used language nowadays that helps in software development, android application development, and more. However, C language is used for developing the operating systems, firmware, and more. In this blog, we will look at C vs Java: the similarities and differences between the two programming languages.
What is the C programming language?
C is a general-purpose programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1970 at Bell laboratories. It is a middle-level programming language and it is a compiled language. Learning the C language is comparatively easier than Java. At the same time, developing a C program takes time and it is more lengthy than Java.
Many programming languages are based on the basic features of the C language. It is an imperative procedural language designed to provide memory access at a low level. It helps to map the machine instructions efficiently. C programming language uses the top-down approach and it is suitable for developing portable applications and firmware.
What is the Java language?
Java is an object-oriented, general-purpose, and high-level programming language developed by James Gosling in 1991 at Sun Microsystems. Java was first given the name of OAK after an oak tree, later it was renamed Java. Java is an interpreted language that follows a bottom-up approach.
Java is a powerful programming language used for developing desktop applications, mobile and web apps, embedded systems, big data processing, and more. Sometimes, Java codes can take more time because of the overhead. The main focus of the Java language is to develop handheld device applications.
C vs Java: Main differences between them
Both C and Java programming language has so many differences between them. We will see some of the top differences between the two languages in the following points
|1.||It is a middle-level programming language||It is a high-level programming language|
|2.||C is both structural and procedure-oriented language||It is an object-oriented language|
|3.||For designing applications, C uses the top-down approach||For designing applications, Java uses the bottom-up approach|
|4.||C language is a compiled programming language||Java is an interpreted programming language|
|5.||C is a platform-dependent language||Java is a platform-independent language that uses WORA (Write Once and Read Any)|
|6.||C language contains 32 keywords||Java language consists of 50 keywords|
|7.||C doesn’t follow OOP (object-oriented programming) concepts||Java follows OOPs concepts|
|8.||C programs are saved with extension .c||Java files are saved with the .java extension|
|9.||The programs are function-driven||The programs in Java are class and object driven|
|10.||Only multi-line comments are possible in C. For example, /* comments */||Both single and multi-line comments are possible in Java. For example, /* comments */ and //comments|
|11.||C is not as secure as Java||Java is a fully secured language compared to the C language|
|12.||C converts its code to machine language in order to be understandable by the machine||Java translates the code to bytecode to be executed by JVM (Java Virtual Machine)|
|13.||C supports pointers||Java doesn’t support pointers to provide security|
|14.||C doesn’t support code reusability and inheritance||Java support inheritance to provide code reusability|
|15.||Threading is not supported in the C language||Java supports threading and multiple tasks can be performed at once|
|16.||Memory management is not maintained internally||Memory management is maintained internally in Java|
|17.||C language generates files with .exe extension||Java language generates files with .class extension|
|18||Code execution in C happens directly||Code execution in Java is carried out with the help of JVM|
|19.||C language supports both call by value and call by reference||Java supports call by value only|
|20.||C is not a portable language||Java is a portable language|
|21.||C language supports goto statement||Java doesn’t support the goto statement|
|22.||C language has support for preprocessors||Java language doesn’t support preprocessors|
|23.||C is not a robust language||Java is a robust language because of its strong memory management|
|24.||This language is useful for developing firmware and system application||It is helpful in creating enterprise applications and web apps|
|25.||C doesn’t support polymorphism, virtual function, and operator overloading||Java support polymorphism, virtual function, and operator overloading|
|26.||C supports union and structure data types||Java doesn’t support union and structure data types|
|27.||Storage classes are supported in C||Storage classes are not supported in Java|
|28.||C supports virtual keywords||Java doesn’t support virtual keywords|
|29.||In C language, the default members are public||In Java, the default members are private|
|30.||In C, data hiding is possible using static||In Java, data hiding is possible using private|
Applications of C and Java
Both C and Java are used nowadays according to their programming nature. Below is the list of main applications of C and Java.
Some of the applications of the C language include:
- Embedded systems
- Operating systems
- Graphical User Interface
- Compiler design
- Mozilla Firefox
- Gaming and Animation
Some of the applications of Java include:
- Enterprise applications
- Network applications
- Web applications
- Android applications
- Desktop applications
- Cloud-based applications
- Distributed applications
- Big Data technologies
Apart from C or Java, one can learn a programming language by choosing any of the languages that exist today. But these two languages are most popularly used for developing software and operating systems. If you are new to programming, starting with the C language would be a better choice as it is easy to learn than Java. If you want to work with web apps with great user interaction or to develop desktop or android apps, then Java is the right one for you. In this blog, we learned about C vs Java– the differences between them. Go through all the differences between them and choose the language that best fits your requirements.